How to create a tar.gz file on Linux

Last Updated on September 27, 2015 by admin

In the following post, I will show you several examples on how to create a tar gz file while preserving file permissions and ownerships of the archived files.

Create tar.gz command

Here is the tar command that has to be run on the shell. I will explain the command line options below.

tar pczf myarchive.tar.gz /home/till/mydocuments

This command creates the archive myarchive.tar.gz which contains the files and folders from the path /home/till/mydocuments.

The command line options explained:

  • [p] This option stand for "preserve", it instructs tar to store details on file owner and file permissions in the archive.
  • [c] Stands for create. This option is mandatory when a file is created.
  • [z] The z option enables gzip compression.
  • [f] The file option tells tar to create an archive file. Tar will send the output to stdout if this option is omitted.

Tar command examples

Example 1: Backup the /etc Directory

Create a backup of the /etc config directory. The backup is stored in the root folder.

tar pczvf /root/etc.tar.gz /etc

Create tar.gz exaample.

The command should be run as root to ensure that all files in /etc are included in the backup.

This time I've added the [v] option in the command. This option stands for verbose, it tells tar to show all file names that get added into the archive.

Example 2: Backup your /home directory

Create a backup of your home directory. The backup will be stored in a directory /backup.

tar czf /backup/myuser.tar.gz /home/myuser

Replace myuser with your username. In this command, I've omitted the [p] switch, so the permissions get not preserved.

Example 3: A file-based backup of MySQL databases

The MySQL databases are stored in /var/lib/mysql on most Linux distributions. You can check that with the command:

ls /var/lib/mysql

tar_backup_mysql

Stop the database server to get a consistent MySQL file backup with tar. The backup will be written to the /backup folder.

1) Create the backup folder

mkdir /backup
chmod 600 /backup

2) Stop MySQL, run the backup with tar and start the database server again.

service mysql stop
tar pczf /backup/mysql.tar.gz /var/lib/mysql
service mysql start
ls -lah /backup

tar-backup-mysql2

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